Updated: Sep 26
THE CONCEPT OF GENOMICS IN ENGINEERING by Ms SamiPriya Executive - ATHEENAPANDIAN ORGANIZATIONS
What is Genomes and genomics?
Genome is the set of instruction need to create an organism, genomes are stored in cell as DNA. It is known as deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is a special molecule that stores information using a special code, Our human genome contains about 23000 code for different proteins.
Each functional unit of DNA is called gene. The study of how DNA works is called genetics. The study of genome and its environment is known as genomics.
What is Genomics Engineer?
Genetic or genomics engineering involves altering the DNA structure to create a new structure with desirable properties by adding or removing genes from it. Traits can be applied to both animals and plants, both living organisms.
What is the History behind Genome Engineering ?
1985-The Discovery of zinc finger nuclease(ZFN)
1993-The discovery of the principles of CRISPR
2011-Discovery of TALENS
2012-Discovery CRISPR as a gene editing tool
2015-Human embryo is edited with CRISPR
Which Technique used in Genome Engineering?
1.Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN)
· ZFN pair is delivered
· ZFP(Zinc Finger Protein) recognize the largest site
· FOK 1 chops, creating double strand break
· Gene get deleted or Gene integration
2.Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases(TALEN)
· Engineer the TALEN construct
· Insert the TALEN construct into a plasmid
· Plasmid is inserted into the cell
· Once inside the cell the TALEN gets expressed
· The RVD(Repeat Variable Di-residues) then binds to the specific DNA and the FOK1 creates a double-stranded act
· Then deletion or alternation can happened
3.Clustered Regularly Interspaces Short Palindromic Repeats
Associated Protein 9(CRISPR-Cas9)
· Complex form
· Complex read DNA
· Binding occurs
· DNA is cleaved
· Then alternation happened
Application of Genomic Engineering
1. The production of drugs like insulin, human growth hormone, hepatitis B vaccine
2. The pharmaceutical development
3. To find the new treatment mode for treat the diseases
With Best Regards