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11 Major Human Systems

Updated: Jul 8, 2023


Every biomedical professional should have some basic knowledge about the human structure, parts, and along with their functions.



1. Circulatory system

The human heart is the structural and functional unit of the entire circulatory system of the human body located in the sternum (center of the chest region) and its associated parts are two upper chambers (Auricles) consists of superior and inferior vena cavas on the right side and pulmonary vein (4 in number) on the left side and two Lower chambers (Ventricles)



consists of a pulmonary artery on the right side and aorta (The largest artery in the human body) on the left side. In-between the upper and the lower chamber there is a valve called tricuspid and bicuspid valve and semilunar valves on the pulmonary and aorta. The function of the system is to circulate the blood, collected the de-oxygenated blood from all the parts of the body, and circulates the oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.

2. Respiratory system

A pair of lungs located in the chest region is the structural and functional unit of the respiratory system and its associated organs are mouths, nose, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, air sacks, and alveoli and the function of this system is to purify the inhaled atmospheric air and pass it to all over the body through blood.

3. Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord is the most important structural and functional unit of the central nervous system and it is located inside the skull and spinal cord is projected out as backbone and its associated parts cerebrum, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, cervical and lumbar are the helping parts of the brain and spinal cord.

The function of this system is to control the human consciousness, imagination, intelligence, memory, thinking, reasoning, planning, and body balance, regulation of various parameters such as temperature, pressure, and pulse.

4. Digestive system

The stomach and intestine (small and large) are the most important parts of digesting the inhales food of humans and it is located in the abdominal region of the human body and its associated parts are salivary glands, esophagus and digestive organs like liver, gall bladder, and pancreases. The function of this system the main function is to breakdown of all the food (nutrients) molecules and then reabsorbed into the body.




5. Excretory system

A pair of the kidney is located on the backside region of the upper abdominal area and its associated parts are nephron, renal artery, renal vein, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra. The function of this system the main function of the excretory system is to discharging or eliminating waste by homeostasis.

6. Skeletal system


The axial and appendicular bones are the major parts of the skeletal system and its associated parts include there are 206 bones along with tendons, ligaments and cartilages are in the human body to associate the function of the human skeletal system and the function is that to support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage, and the endocrine regulation are the most important function of the skeletal system.

7. Muscular system


Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles are the most important parts of the human muscular system and its associated parts are striated muscle and other voluntary and involuntary muscles are associating the function of the system and the function

Support, movement, and protection are the most significant purpose of the muscular system.

8. Reproductive system

Testis and ovaries are the most important parts of the human reproductive system and associated parts are uterus, penis, fallopian tubes and vagina are the supported organs for the system and the function is that to produce and deposit sperm and egg, to protect the offspring until birth for the female system.




9. Endocrine and Exocrine system

Hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pineal body, sweat gland, and salivary gland are the important parts of the system and its associated parts are somoto tropic hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone, Adreno cortico tropic hormone and its function to growth and development, homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction, and response to stimuli are the major functions of endocrine and exocrine glands.

10. Lymphatic system

Lymphatic vessels are the most vital parts of this system and its associated parts are arteries, veins, capillaries, and lymph nodes and its function is that to responsible for the removal of interstitial fluid from tissues, absorbs and transport fatty acids and fats from chyle from the digestive system and also it transports WBC to and from the lymph nodes into the nodes.



11. Immune system

Tonsils, thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes are the most important parts of this immune system and its associated parts are spleen, WBC, vessels are the associated parts of the immune system its function is that to protect the body by the fight against the foreign bodies.



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